I use slackware. This does need either a braille display or a hardware synthesiser for an accessible install. Whilst speakup is a kernel patch, it doesn't require you to compile your kernel, some distros (eg. slackware (www.slackware.com) or grml (www.grml.org)) come with kernels with speakup already compiled in. As an extra note about GRML, although it uses speakup on the CD, you don't need a hardware synth to use it as it comes with all the software for using speakup with a software synth.
Another alternative if you have access to more than one computer is to do a remote install via telnet, ssh or even a serial console. I don't know too much about these options as I am fortunate enough to have both a hardware synth and a braille display.